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Living organisms uptake and metabolize all forms of carbon from Earth’s carbon reservoir, within which carbon cycles between the troposphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere, and biosphere.

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Legacy radiocarbon ages must be critically examined for what method was used to generate the age, and calibration radiocarbon ages from critical periods of African prehistory lack precision to resolve significant debates.A multipronged dating strategy and careful selection of radiocarbon sample materials are advocated from the earliest stages of research design. Cette revue fournit les archéologues africanistes avec des appréciations et des mises en garde sur l’utilisation des âges radiocarbone.Like all continents, Africa has a heterogeneous geography and should not be viewed as a single “place.” However, in the context of this review, it will become obvious that there are issues unique to radiocarbon dating in Africa that overlap other areas of the world, but combine to create circumstances specific to the continent given the history of research conducted therein.Interested readers are urged to read more general reviews of radiocarbon dating, which discuss issues more exhaustively and globally (e.g., Bronk Ramsey ).Beta particles are electrons or positrons that are emitted from the nucleus of an atom during the process of radioactive decay.

Gas proportional counting was developed later, involving the combustion of organic matter into methane (CH).However, a precise estimate of the age of an artifact (e.g., 10,000 ± 10 years before present []) is worthless if the sample is contaminated or has moved from its primary context, compromising its accuracy.This review article will focus specifically on potential sources of error and critical evaluation of radiocarbon dates .However, my own experience indicates that there is a lack of understanding of what, specifically, is being measured from samples; what is involved in the atmosphere-to-biosphere production, retention, and decay of radiocarbon; and what should and should not be dated from archaeological deposits using radiocarbon dating techniques.Therefore, I will introduce the topic with a brief summary suitable for advanced students and archaeological professionals..According to the University of Arizona, the publishers of ).