The City of Luxembourg with its old quarters and fortifications was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1994 due to the exceptional preservation of the vast fortifications and the old city.
This allowed Germany the military advantage of controlling and expanding the railways there.In August 1914, Imperial Germany violated Luxembourg's neutrality in the war by invading it in the war against France. It is bordered by Belgium to the west and north, Germany to the east, and France to the south.Its capital, Luxembourg City, is one of the four official capitals of the European Union (together with Brussels, Frankfurt, and Strasbourg) and the seat of the European Court of Justice, the highest judicial authority in the EU.After the defeat of Napoleon in 1815, Luxembourg was disputed between Prussia and the Netherlands.
The Congress of Vienna formed Luxembourg as a Grand Duchy within the German Confederation.
The House of Luxembourg produced four emperors during the High Middle Ages.
In 1354, Charles IV elevated the county to the Duchy of Luxembourg.
The King of the Netherlands remained Head of State as Grand Duke of Luxembourg, maintaining a personal union between the two countries until 1890.
At the death of William III, the throne of the Netherlands passed to his daughter Wilhelmina, while Luxembourg (then restricted to male heirs by the Nassau Family Pact) passed to Adolph of Nassau-Weilburg.
The Grand Duchy, with its powerful fortress, became an independent state under the personal possession of William I of the Netherlands with a Prussian garrison to guard the city against another invasion from France.