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Females who experienced psychological violence only were also at increased risk of heavy episodic drinking and adult violence victimization, and exposed males were at risk of antisocial behaviors, suicidal ideation, marijuana use, and adult violence victimization.

The findings from Exner-Cortens’ study support those from other studies showing an increased risk of violence re-victimization in late adolescence/young adulthood if experienced earlier in adolescence [1, 2, 17].

Specifically, our study includes an expanded assessment of how dating violence types relate to health in late adolescence, including dating violence types that are relevant to today’s adolescents [22].

Particularly relevant in today’s society are the ways in which technology, such as text messaging, email and social media [21, 22, 28–39], has affected teen relationships, including violence occurring in those relationships.

The assessment did not cover the range of violence types (physical, sexual, and non-physical abuse) recommended for assessment by the U. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [18–20], including violence types relevant to today’s adolescents, such as harassment/stalking via text messaging, email, and social media [21, 22].

Studies of adults have more extensively parsed health effects by specific types of violence experienced in intimate relationships, including a consideration of the different violence types (physical, sexual, and non-physical abuse) recommended for assessment by the U. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [18–20].

Similarly, “hooking up,” which is a primary pathway to relationship formation among today’s adolescents [40], also presents unique challenges [40, 41] by presenting a ripe context for unwanted/coerced sex.

Related, our study examines the association between sexual violence through verbal coercion and/or physical force and health in late adolescence [42–44].

The present investigation expands upon prior studies by examining the relationship between health in late adolescence and the experience of physical/sexual and non-physical only (e.g., threats, controlling behavior) dating violence from age 13 to 19.

Our study significantly adds to the literature on the health correlates of specific types of adolescent dating violence.

For males, no health differences were observed for those experiencing physical/sexual dating violence compared to those who did not.

Compared to non-exposed males, males with non-physical dating violence only were at increased risk of smoking (PR = 3.91) and disordered eating (fasting, using diet aids, vomiting, PR = 2.93).

A protective order is a legal order issued by a state court which requires one person to stop harming another.