Although other candidates have spoken at BJU over the years without incident, the appearance by Bush was portrayed by political foe John Mc Cain as an endorsement of the school's extreme beliefs, including its prohibition on interracial dating and its anti-Catholic views.Bush subsequently made it clear that he does not share the school's controversial views, and apologized for missing an opportunity to speak ...OSL (optically stimulated luminescence) dates on soils above ice age strata show pre-Clovis is at least older than 14,000.
"Topper is the oldest radiocarbon dated site in North America," Goodyear says."However, other early sites in Brazil and Chile, as well as a site in Oklahoma also suggest that humans were in the Western Hemisphere as early as 30,000 years ago to perhaps 60,000." In 1998, Goodyear, nationally known for his research on the ice age Paleo Indian cultures dug below the 13,000-year Clovis level at the Topper site and found unusual stone tools up to a meter deeper.One modern date related to an intrusion," Stafford says."The two 50,000 dates indicate that they are at least 50,300 years.Using a backhoe and hand excavations, Goodyear's team dug through the Pleistocene terrace soil, some 4 meters below the ground surface.
Goodyear found a number of artifacts similar to the pre-Clovis forms he has excavated in recent years.Then on the last day of the last week of digging, Goodyear's team uncovered a black stain in the soil where artifacts lay, providing him the charcoal needed for radiocarbon dating. Tom Stafford of Stafford Laboratories in Boulder, Colo., came to Topper and collected charcoal samples for dating."Three radiocarbon dates were obtained from deep in the terrace at Topper with two dates of 50,300 and 51,700 on burnt plant remains.May 2000 — Geology study done by consultants; ice age soil confirmed for pre-Clovis artifacts.May 2001 — Geologists revisit Topper and obtain ancient plant remains deep down in the Pleistocene terrace.The absolute age is not known." The revelation of an even older date for Topper is expected to heighten speculation about when man got to the Western Hemisphere and add to the debate over other pre-Clovis sites in the Eastern United States such as Meadowcroft Rockshelter, Pa., and Cactus Hill, Va.